A New Maritime Security Architecture for the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road: The South China Sea and the Persian Gulf

Mohammad Ali Zohourian

Resumo


China and Iran have the ancient gate of Maritime Silk Road, as well as two new superhighways within this road, namely Strait of Hormuz and Malacca Strait. Unlike the Strait of Hormuz, maritime security in the Malacca Strait needs to be redesigned and re-established by littoral states for the safe corridor. The aim of this study is to find out the new concept and classification of maritime security, namely direct and indirect insecurity elements. This study illustrates that the most remarkable direct and indirect elements are respectively piracy, armed robbery, and external state presence. It is acknowledged that the continuous and dangerous presence of an external state is the indirect insecurity element. In the light of the USA's violation and destabilizing activities in the Persian Gulf and the South China Sea, its presence and passage are considered as noninnocent activities, as these are prejudicial to the good order, peace and security of states located along the coast. Therefore, a new doctrine called the "Doctrine of No Sheriff" is offered in this article to possibly prevent the uprising of hegemonies in every region in the future.

 


Texto completo:

PDF (English)

Referências


AL-MAYADEEN. 2018. In a document obtained by the fields: This is how America develops and spreads deadly viruses in the world. Retrieved February 21, 2020, from http://m.almayadeen.net/news/politics/855951/%2525D8%2525A7%2525D9%252584%2525D9%252585%2525D9%25258A%2525D8%2525A7%2525D8%2525AF%2525D9%25258A%2525D9%252586-%2525D8%2525AA%2525D9%252583%2525D8%2525B4%2525D9%252581-%2525D8%2525B9%2525D9%252586-%2525D9%252588%2525D8%2525AB%2525D9%25258A%2525D9%252582%2525D8%2525A9-%2525D8%2525AD%2525D9%25

ALJAZEERA. 2012. Iran claims capture of US drone. News. Al Jazeera. Retrieved November 10, 2017, from http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2012/12/2012124758228897.html

ALJAZEERA. 2017. China protests US ship near South China Sea island. China News. Al Jazeera. Retrieved November 8, 2017, from http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/08/china-protests-ship-south-china-sea-island-170811034407390.html

ALWAGHT. 2018. Biological Experiments on “Flies and Mosquitoes”: A New American Strategy to Kill Humans. Retrieved February 21, 2020, from http://alwaght.com/ar/News/124383/???????-??????????-???-??????-????????-??

ATTARD, F. 2014. IMO’s Contribution to International Law Regulating Maritime Security. Journal of Maritime Law & Commerce, 45(4):479–565. https://doi.org/10.3868/s050-004-015-0003-8

BLAINEY, G. 1973. The Causes of War. London, Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1536-7150.1946.tb01826.x

BLANCHARD, J. M. F.,; FLINT, C. 2017. The geopolitics of China’s maritime silk road initiative. Geopolitics, 22(2):223–245. https://doi.org/10.1080/14650045.2017.1291503

BROOKS, S. G.; IKENBERRY, G. J.; WOHLFORTH, W. C. 2013. Don’t Come Home, America: The Case against Retrenchment. International Security, 37(3):7–51. https://doi.org/10.1162/ISEC_a_00107

BUEGER, C. 2015. What is maritime security? Marine Policy, 53:159–164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2014.12.005

CHATTERJEE, A. 2014. Non-traditional Maritime Security Threats in the Indian Ocean Region. Maritime Affairs: Journal of the National Maritime Foundation of India, 10(2):77–95. https://doi.org/10.1080/09733159.2014.972669

CHINA, T. S. C. I. O. of the P. R. of. (2017). Document: China’s Military Strategy. USNI News. Retrieved November 10, 2017, from https://news.usni.org/2015/05/26/document-chinas-military-strategy

CHUNG, C. P. 2017. What are the strategic and economic implications for South Asia of China’s Maritime Silk Road initiative? Pacific Review, (December), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/09512748.2017.1375000

DARYAEE, T. 2003. The Persian Gulf trade in late Antiquity. Journal of World History, 14(1):1–16. https://doi.org/10.2307/20079006

DE NEVERS, R. 2015. Sovereignty at sea: States and security in the maritime domain. Security Studies, 24(4):597-630. https://doi.org/10.1080/09636412.2015.1103132

DELAHUNTY, R. J. 2015. Towards a Concert of Asia? A Proposed International Security Regime. University of Pennsylvania Asian Law Review, 11:1-79.

EKLOF, S. 2006. Pirates in paradise: A modern history of Southeast Asia’s maritime marauders. Nordic Institute of Asian Studies.

FELLMETH, A. X.; Horwitz, M. 2009. Guide to Latin in International Law. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

GANESAN, N. 2008. Regional Security: Singapore perspective. In: S. Takashi (Ed.), Across the Causeway: A Multi-dimensional Study of Malaysia-Singapore Relations. Singapore, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, pp. 175–186.

GERTZ, B. 2020. Coronavirus link to China biowarfare program possible. Retrieved February 23, 2020, from https://m.washingtontimes.com/news/2020/jan/26/coronavirus-link-china-biowarfare-program-possible/

GILPIN, R. 1981. War and Change in World Politics. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511664267

GRØNNING, B. E. M. 2017. Japan’s security cooperation with the Philippines and Vietnam. The Pacific Review, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/09512748.2017.1397730

GUARDIAN. 2016. Iran demands apology after detaining US navy boat crews for “violating” Gulf waters. The Guardian, January 12, 2016, from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jan/12/iran-detains-two-us-navy-ships-persian-gulf

HAWKES, K. G. 1989. Maritime Security. Centreville, Cornell Maritime Press.

ICAO. 1948. Convention on International Civil Aviation. Retrieved from http://www.icao.int/publications/Documents/7300_9ed.pdf

ICAO. 1971. Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation ( Montreal Convention ).

ICAO. 1988. Report of the ICAO Fact-Finding Investigation.

IMO. 2001. Resolution A.922(22).

IMO. 2009. Resolution A.1025(26).

IMO. 2019. Global Integrated Shipping Information System. Retrieved September 4, 2019, from https://gisis.imo.org/Public/Default.aspx

MAK, J. N. 2006. Unilateralism and Regionalism: Working Together and Alone in the Malacca Straits. In: G. G. Ong-Webb. (Ed.), Piracy, maritime terrorism and securing the Malacca Straits, Singapore, ISEAS/IIAS, pp. 134–162.

MAK, J. N. 2011. Maritime Security and the ARF: why the focus on the Dialogue rather than action. In: J. H. and N. M. Morada (Ed.), Cooperative Security in the Asia-Pacific: The ASEAN Regional Forum, London, Routledge, pp. 172–198.

JESUS, H. E. J. L. 2003. Protection of Foreign Ships against Piracy and Terrorism at Sea: Legal Aspects. International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, 19(1):363–400.

LI, K X.; CHENG, J. 2006. Maritime Law and Policy for Energy Security in Asia a Chinese Perspective. Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce, 1:567–588. https://doi.org/10.3366/ajicl.2011.0005@

KLEIN, N. 2011. Maritime Security and the Law of the Sea (reprint). Oxford.

KONG ZI, (Confucius). 2013. The Book of Rites. (L. G. and D. Sheng, Ed.). Createspace Independent Pub.

KRASKA, J. 2011. Contemporary Maritime Piracy: International Law, Strategy, and Diplomacy at Sea. California, Praeger.

KRASKA, J. 2014. Legal Vortex in the Strait of Hormuz. Virginia Journal of International Law, 54(2):323–366.

KUPPUSWAMY, C. S. 2004. Straits of Malacca: Security Implications. South Asia Analysis Group, 1033. Retrieved from http://www.southasiaanalysis

LI, Q. 2006. Maritime silk road. Beijing, China International Press.

MACK, A. 1993. Security Regimes for the Oceans The Tragedy of the Commons, the Security Dilemma, and Common Security. In: G. H. Jon M. Van Dyke, Durwood Zaelke (Ed.), Freedom for the Seas in the 21st Century: Ocean Governance and Environmental Harmony, Washington, Island Press, pp. 409-419.

MAHAN, A. T. 1987. The Influence of Sea Power Upon History 1660-1783. Mineola, Dover Publications.

MEJIA, M. J. 2003. Maritime Gerrymandering: Dilemmas in Defining Piracy, Terrorism and other Acts of Maritime Violence. Journal of International Commercial Law, 2(2):153–175.

MINDEF. 2016. Fact Sheet: The Malacca Straits Patrol. Retrieved June 2, 2018, from https://www.mindef.gov.sg/web/portal/mindef/news-and-events/latest-releases/article-detail/2016/april/2016apr21-news-releases-00134/

MO, J. 2002. Options to Combat Maritime Piracy in Southeast Asia. Ocean Development & International Law, 33(3–4):343–358. https://doi.org/10.1080/00908320290054819

NBCNEWS. 2004. 8 British troops on way out of Iran. NBC News. Retrieved November 10, 2017, from http://www.nbcnews.com/id/5261548/ns/world_news/t/british-troops-way-out-iran/

PERCY, S. 2016. Maritime crime and naval response. Survival, 58(3):155–189. https://doi.org/10.1080/00396338.2016.1186986

PRAKASH Karat. 2007. Subordinate Ally: The Nuclear Deal and India-US Strategic Relations. New Delhi, LeftWord Books.

RAHHAL, N. 2020. Wuhan, China’s coronavirus epicentre, has SARS and Ebola lab. Retrieved February 23, 2020, from https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-7922379/Chinas-lab-studying-SARS-Ebola-Wuhan-outbreaks-center.html

REISMAN, W. M. 1980. The Regime of Straits and National Security: An Appraisal of International Lawmaking. The American Journal of International Law, 74(1):48–76.

REUTERS. 2007. TIMELINE - British sailors captured by Iran. Retrieved November 8, 2017, from http://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-britain-iran-kidnap-chronology/timeline-british-sailors-captured-by-iran-idUKL1964179720070619

ROACH, J. A. 2011. General Problematic Issues on Exercise of Jurisdiction over Modern instances of Piracy. In: Selected Contemporary Issues in the Law of the Sea. Leiden, Martinus Nijhoff, pp. 1–360.

ROGERS, R. 2010. Ship Rregistration: A Critical Analysis. SL, World Maritime University.

ROSENBERG, D.; CHUNG, C. 2008. Maritime security in the South China Sea: Coordinating coastal and user state priorities. Ocean Development and International Law, 39(1):51–68. https://doi.org/10.1080/00908320701641602

ROVNER, J.; TALMADGE, C. 2014. Hegemony, Force Posture, and the Provision of Public Goods: The Once and Future Role of Outside Powers in Securing Persian Gulf Oil. Security Studies, 23(3):548–581. https://doi.org/10.1080/15325024.2014.935224

SEIN, A. G. H.; K. M. 2004. Jurisdiction over a Person Abducted from a Foreign Country: Alvarez Machain case Revisited. Journal of Malaysian and Comparative Law, 31(1):69-86.

SHAW, M. 2008. International Law. Vasa (Sixth). Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

STEINMANN, L. K. 2012. Shah Abbas and the Royal Silk Trade. Taylor & Francis, 14(1):68–74.

WILSKE, S.; SCHILLER, T. 1988. Jurisdiction Over Persons Abducted in Violation of International Law in the Aftermath of United States v Alvarez. The University of Chicago Law School Roundtable, 5(1):205-242.

STEVENSON, A. 2020. Senator Tom Cotton Repeats Fringe Theory of Coronavirus Origins. NY Times, February 23, 2020, from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/17/business/media/coronavirus-tom-cotton-china.html

STOREY, I. 2008. Securing Southeast Asia’s Sea Lanes: A Work in Progress. Asia Policy, 6(1):95–128. https://doi.org/10.1353/asp.2008.0025

SUMMERS, T. 2016. China’s ‘New Silk Roads’: sub-national regions and networks of global political economy. Third World Quarterly, 37(9):1628–1643. https://doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2016.1153415

TALBOT, W. A. 1928. The Persian Gulf?: An Historical Sketch From The Earliest Times to The Beginning Of The Twentieth Century. Oxford, Milford Publisher.

TEO, Y. Y. 2007. Target Malacca Straits: Maritime terrorism in Southeast Asia. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 30(6):541–561. https://doi.org/10.1080/10576100701329568

UK Government. 2014. The UK National Strategy for Maritime Security. London, UKG.

UNION, C. of the E. 2014. The European Union Maritime Security Strategy. Brussels.

UNITED NATIONS. 2008. Oceans and the law of the Sea Report of the Secretary -General. Vol. A/63/63).

UNITED NATIONS. 1982. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. United Nations.

WANG, L. 2015. Sea Lanes and Chinese National Energy Security. Journal of Coastal Research, 73(73):572–576. https://doi.org/10.2112/SI73-099.1

WESTCOTT, B.; JIANG, S. 2020. Chinese diplomat promotes conspiracy theory. CNN, March 13, 2020. Retrieved March 16, 2020, from https://edition.cnn.com/2020/03/13/asia/china-coronavirus-us-lijian-zhao-intl-hnk/index.html

WOOLLEY, C. R. 2010. Piracy and Sovereign Rights?: Addressing Piracy in the Straits of Malacca Without Degrading the Sovereign Rights of Indonesia and Malaysia. Santa Clara Journal of International Law, 447–472.

WU, S. 2010. Maritime Security in the South China Sea: Regional Implications and International Cooperation. (K. Zou, Ed.). London, Routledge.

XINHUA. 2015. Chronology of China’s Belt and Road Initiative. Xinhuanet. Retrieved June 13, 2018, from http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2015-03/28/c_134105435.htm

ZOHOURIAN, M. A. 2018. The Real Nature of Artificial Islands, Installation and Structures from Perspective of Law of the Sea. Asia-Pacific Journal of Law, Politics and Administration, 2(1):13–26.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.4013/rechtd.2020.122.05



ISSN: 2175-2168 - Melhor visualizado no Mozilla Firefox

Licença Creative Commons
Este trabalho está licenciado sob uma Licença Creative Commons Attribution 3.0

São Leopoldo, RS. Av. Unisinos, 950. Bairro Cristo Rei, CEP: 93.022-000. Atendimento Unisinos +55 (51) 3591 1122

Projeto gráfico: Jully Rodrigues



SCImago Journal & Country RankCrossref Member Badge Crossref Similarity Check logo