A New Maritime Security Architecture for the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road: The South China Sea and the Persian Gulf

Mohammad Ali Zohourian


China and Iran have the ancient gate of Maritime Silk Road, as well as two new superhighways within this road, namely Strait of Hormuz and Malacca Strait. Unlike the Strait of Hormuz, maritime security in the Malacca Strait needs to be redesigned and re-established by littoral states for the safe corridor. The aim of this study is to find out the new concept and classification of maritime security, namely direct and indirect insecurity elements. This study illustrates that the most remarkable direct and indirect elements are respectively piracy, armed robbery, and external state presence. It is acknowledged that the continuous and dangerous presence of an external state is the indirect insecurity element. In the light of the USA's violation and destabilizing activities in the Persian Gulf and the South China Sea, its presence and passage are considered as noninnocent activities, as these are prejudicial to the good order, peace and security of states located along the coast. Therefore, a new doctrine called the "Doctrine of No Sheriff" is offered in this article to possibly prevent the uprising of hegemonies in every region in the future.



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