The Rise of Drones and the Transformation of Warfare: A View from Philosophy of International Law

Filippo Ruschi

Resumo


Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems have become iconic of contemporary conflicts. Their impact, however, is not limited to the transformation of warfare and the evolution of military technologies. Rather, it is necessary to scrutinize how drones and military robots will change the reference legal framework. More in particular legal scholars need to reflect further on the fate of International Humanitarian Law once warfare has taken a posthuman character.

Texto completo:

PDF (English)

Referências


ÁGOSTON, G. 2005. Guns for the Sultan: Military Power and the Weapons Industry in the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

AMATO MANGIAMELI, A. 2012. Arte e/o tecnica. Sfide giuridiche. Padova, CEDAM.

AMATO, S. 2014. Neuroscienze e utilizzazione militare delle tecniche di potenziamento umano. Etica & Politica, 16(2): 182-198.

ASLAM, M. W. 2011. A Critical Evaluation of American Drone Strikes in Pakistan. Legality, Legitimacy and Prudence. Critical Studies on Terrorism, 4 (3): 313-329.

BANKS, W. C. 2014, Regulating Drones: Are Targeted Killings by Drones Outside Traditional Battlefields Legal?, In: P. L. Bergen; D. Rothenberg (eds), Drone Wars. Transforming Conflict, Law, and Policy, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

BARBERIS, M. 2017. Non c'è sicurezza senza libertà. Il fallimento delle politiche antiterrorismo. Bologna, il Mulino.

BERGEN, P. L.; ROWLAND, J. 2015, World of Drones. The Global Proliferation of Drone Technology, In: P. L. Bergen, D. Rothenberg (eds), Drone Wars: Transforming Conflict, Law, and Policy, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

BLACK, J. 1991. A Military Revolution? Military Change and European Society 1550–1800. London, Macmillan.

BLACK, J. 2014. War in the Modern World, 1990-2014. London, Routledge.

BOBBIO, N. 1991. Il problema della guerra e le vie della pace. Bologna, il Mulino, trad. port. 2005. O problema da guerra e as vias da paz. São Paulo. Editora UNESP.

BOULANIN, V.; VERBRUGGEN, M. 2017. Mapping the Development of Autonomy in Weapon Systems. Solna, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.

BOUSQUET, A. 2018. The Eye of War: Military Perception from the Telescope to the Drone. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press.

BOYLE, M. J. 2013. The Costs and Consequences of Drone Warfare. International Affairs, 89 (1):1-29.

BRAUN, M. 2014, Predator Effect. A Phenomenon Unique to the War on Terror, In: P. L. Bergen, D. Rothenberg (eds), Drone Wars. Transforming Conflict, Law, and Policy, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

BRAUN, M.; BRUNSTETTER, D. R. 2013. Rethinking the Criterion for Assessing Cia-targeted Killings: Drones, Proportionality and ‘Jus ad Vim’. Journal of Military Ethics, 12 (4):304-324.

BROOKMAN-BYRNE, M. 2017. Drone Use ‘Outside Areas of Active Hostilities’: An Examination of the Legal Paradigms Governing US Covert Remote Strikes. Netherlands International Law Review, 64:3-41.

BUCHANAN, A.; KEOHANE, R. O. 2015. Toward a Drone Accountability Regime. Ethics & International Affairs, 29(1):15-37.

CAMPIONE, R. 2009. El nomos de la guerra. Valencia, Tirant lo Blanch.

CARDINI, F. 2014. Alle radici della cavalleria medievale. il Mulino, Bologna.

CAVALLARO, J.; SONNENBERG, S.; KNUCKEY, S. 2012. Living Under Drones: Death, Injury and Trauma to Civilians from US Drone Practices in Pakistan. Stanford, International Human Rights and Conflict Resolution Clinic - Stanford Law School.

CBS NEWS. 2014. U.S. Army General Says Robots Could Replace One-Fourth of Combat Soldiers by 2030, Jan. 23.

CEZNE, E.; JUMBERT, M. G.; SANDVIK, K. B. 2016. Drones como veículos para a ação humanitária: perspectivas, oportunidades e desafios. Conjuntura Austral. Journal of the Global South, 7(33-34):45-60.

CHADWICK, K. 2020, Unmanned Maritime Systems Will Shape the Future of Naval Operations: Is International Law Ready?, In: M. D. Evans, S. Galani (eds), Maritime Security and the Law of the Sea. Help or Hindrance?, Cheltenham, Elgar.

CHAMAYOU, G. 2013. Théorie du drone. Paris, La Fabrique éditions, engl. trans. 2015. A Theory of the Drone. New York, The New Press, trad. port. 2015. Teoria do drone. São Paulo, Cosac & Naify.

CHENGETA, T. 2017. Defining the Emerging Notion of Meaningful Human Control in Weapon Systems. New York University Journal of International Law & Politics, 49(3):833-890.

CIPOLLA, C. 1965. Guns and Sails in the Early Phase of European Expansion. 1400-1700. London, Collins.

DAVIS, O. 2019. Theorizing the Advent of Weaponized Drones as Techniques of Domestic Paramilitary Policing. Security Dialogue, 50(4):344-360.

DE GROOF, M. 2016, Death from the Sky: International Legal and Practical Issues on the Use of Armed Drones, In: A. Završnik (ed.), Drones and Unmanned Aerial Systems: Legal and Social Implications for Security and Surveillance, Berlin, Springer.

DOUHET, G. 1921. Il dominio dell’aria. Saggio sull'arte della guerra aerea. Roma, Stabilimento Poligrafico per l’Amministrazione della Guerra; engl. trans. 1942. The Command of the Air. New York, Coward-McCann.

DUDZIAK, M. 2015, Targeted Killings and Secret Law: Drones and the Atrophy of Political Restraints on the War Power, In: D. Cortright, K. Wall, R. Fairhurst (eds), Drones and the Future of Armed Conflict: Ethical, Legal, and Strategic Implications, Chicago, Chicago University Press.

ENEMARK, C. 2013. Armed Drones and the Ethics of War: Military Virtue in a Post-Heroic Age. London, Routledge.

EVANGELISTA, M.; SHUE H. 2014. The American Way of Bombing: Changing Ethical and Legal Norms, from Flying Fortresses to Drones. Ithaca, Cornell University Press.

GALLI, C. 2010. Genealogia della politica. Carl Schmitt e la crisi del pensiero politico. Bologna, il Mulino.

GALLI, C. 2010. Political Spaces and Global War. Minneapolis, Minnesota University Press.

GENTILIS, Alberici. 1598. De iure belli libri tres. Hanoviae.

GILADI, R. 2012. Reflections on Proportionality, Military Necessity and the Clausewitzian War. Israel Law Review, 45(2):323-340.

GLETE, J. 2002. War and the State in Spain, the Dutch Republic and Sweden as Fiscal-Military States. London, Routledge.

GOVERN, K. H.; SCHLAGER, S. A. 2013. Guns for Hire, Death on Demand: The Permissibility of US Outsourcing of Drone Attacks to Civilian Surrogates of the Armed Forces and Challenges to Traditional Just War Theory. Florida Journal of International Law, 25(2):147-206.

GRECO, T. 2000. Norberto Bobbio. Un itinerario tra filosofia e politica. Roma, Donzelli.

GROSSMAN, N. 2018. Drones and Terrorism: Asymmetric Warfare and the Threat to Global Security. London-New York, I. B. Tauris.

GROTII, Hugonis. 1625. De iure belli ac pacis libri tres. Parisiis.

HAJJAR, L. 2019. The Counterterrorism War Paradigm versus International Humanitarian Law: The Legal Contradictions and Global Consequences of the US ‘War on Terror’. Law & Social Inquiry, 44(4):922-956

HASIAN Jr., M. 2016. Drone Warfare and Lawfare in a Post-Heroic Age. Tuscaloosa, University of Alabama Press.

HEATHERLY, M. C. 2014 Drones: The American Controversy. Journal of Strategic Security, 7(4):25-37.

HEEN, M. S. J.; LIEBERMAN, J. D.; MIETHE, T. D. 2018. The Thin Blue Line Meets the Big Blue Sky: Perceptions of Police Legitimacy and Public Attitudes towards Aerial Drones. Criminal Justice Studies, 31(1):18-37.

HELLMICH, C.; PURSE, L. (eds) 2017. Disappearing War. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Cinema and Erasure in the Post 9/11 World. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press.

HIPPLER, T. 2013. Bombing the People. Giulio Douhet and the Foundations of Air-Power Strategy, 1884–1939. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

HIRST, P. 2005. Space and Power: Politics, War and Architecture. Cambridge, Polity.

HOBBES, T. 1651. Leviathan or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common Wealth Ecclesiastical and Civil. London.

HOENIG, M. 2014. Hezbollah and the Use of Drones as a Weapon of Terrorism. Public Interest Report for the Federation of American Scientists, 67(2):1-20.

HUBBARD, B., KARASZ, P.; REED, S. 2019. Two Major Saudi Oil Installations Hit by Drone Strike, and US Blames Iran. The New York Times, Sept. 14.

HUSSAIN, N. 2011. Air Power, In: S. Legg (ed.), Spatiality, Sovereignty and Carl Schmitt. Geographies of the Nomos, London, Routledge.

ICRC, Interpretive Guidance on the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities under International Humanitarian Law, Geneva, May 2009

JACOB, F.; VISONI-ALONZO, G. 2016. The Military Revolution in Early Modern Europe: A Revision. London, Palgrave.

JOHNSTON, P. B.; SARBAHI, P. B.2016. The Impact of US Drone Strikes on Terrorism in Pakistan. International Studies Quarterly, 60(2):203-219.

JONES, R.; JOHNSON, C. 2016. Border Militarisation and the Re?Articulation of Sovereignty. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 41(3):187-200.

KAKAES, K. 2015, From Orville Wright to September 11: What the History of Drone Technology Says about Its Future, In: P. L. Bergen, D. Rothenberg (eds), Drone Wars: Transforming Conflict, Law, and Policy, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

KOSLOWSKI, R.; SCHULZKE, M. 2018. Drones Along Borders: Border Security UAVs in the United States and the European Union. International Studies Perspective,19(4):305-324.

LEHMANN, E. 2013. La guerra dell’aria: Giulio Douhet, stratega impolitico. il Mulino, Bologna.

LUBELL, N. 2010. Extraterritorial Use of Force against Non-State Actors. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

LYNN, J. A. 1991. The ‘Trace Italienne’ and the Growth of Armies: The French Case. The Journal of Military History, 55(3):297-330.

MANNONI, S. 1999. Potenza e ragione. La scienza del diritto internazionale nella crisi dell’equilibrio europeo (1870-1914), Milano, Giuffrè.

MANZIN, M. 2016. ‘Miles Christi’. La dimensione cristiana tra istituzione militare e tutela internazionale dei diritti umani. In: M. S. Birtolo, L. Scillitani (a cura di), ll giusto testimone. Studi e interventi in memoria di Francesco Paolo Montanino. Soveria Mannelli, Rubbettino.

MCCORMICK, J. P. 1999. Carl Schmitt’s Critique of Liberalism: Against Politics as Technology. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

MCDONNELL, T. M. 2017. Rule of Law in the Age of the Drone: Requiring Transparency and Disqualifying Clandestine Actors-The CIA and the Joint Special Operations Command. University of Miami Law Review, 72:34-111.

MEHRING, R. 2009. Carl Schmitt. Aufstieg und Fall. Eine Biographie. München, Beck, engl. trans.2014. Carl Schmitt. A Biography. Cambridge, Polity.

MELONI, C. 2013. Fare la guerra con omicidi mirati tra questioni morali e aspetti giuridici. il Mulino, 62(5):852-860.

MEYROWITZ, H. 1994. The Principle of Superfluous Injury or Unnecessary Suffering. From the Declaration of St. Petersburg of 1868 to Additional Protocol 1 of 1977. International Review of the Red Cross, 34(299):98-122.

MOHLIN, M. 2016, Merchants of Security: Private Security Companies, Strategy and the Quest for Power, In: J. Berndtsson, C. Kinsey (eds), The Routledge Research Companion to Security Outsourcing, London, Routledge.

MUHSIN, D. 2019. Houthi Use of Drones Delivers Potent Message in Yemen War. The International Institute for Strategic Studies, Aug. 27. At https://www.iiss.org/blogs/analysis/2019/08/houthi-uav-strategy-in-yemen

NANAYAKKARA, T. 2019, Autonomy of Humans and Robots, In: J. Gow, E. Dijxhoorn, R. Kerr, G. Verdirame(eds), Routledge Handbook of War, Law and Technology, London, Routledge.

NIETO-GOMEZ, R. 2014, Walls, Sensors and Drones: Technology and Surveillance on the US-Mexico Border, In: E. Vallet (ed.), Borders, Fences and Walls: States of Insecurity, London, Ashgate.

OSINGA, F. P. B.; ROORDA, M. P. 2016, From Douhet To Drones, Air Warfare, and the Evolution of Targeting, In: P. A. L. Ducheine, M. N. Schmitt, F. P. B. Osinga (eds), Targeting: the Challenges of Modern Warfare, The Hague, TMC Asser Press.

PARKER, G. 1996. The Military Revolution, 1500–1800. Military Innovation and the Rise of the West. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

PARROTT, D. 2001. Richelieu’s Army. War, Government and Society in France, 1624-1642. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

PIETROPAOLI, S. 2012. Schmitt. Roma, Carocci.

PLAW, A.; FRICKER, M. S.; WILLIAMS, B. G. 2011. Practice Makes Perfect? The Changing Civilian Toll of CIA Drone Strikes in Pakistan. Perspectives on Terrorism, 5(5-6):51-69

RADFAN, A. J.; MURPHY, R. 2011. Measure Twice, Shoot Once: Higher Care for CIA Targeted Killing. University of Illinois Law Review, 4:1202-1241.

REDSE JOHANSEN, S. 2019. The Military Commander's Necessity: The Law of Armed Conflict and its Limits, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

RENZ, F. 2017. The Role of Private Military and Security Companies: Corporate Dogs of War or Civilians Operating in Hostile Environments?. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für internationales und europäisches Recht = Revue suisse de droit international et droit européen, 27(3):305-332.

RICH, P. B. 2018. Cinema, Drone Warfare and the Framing of Counter-Terrorism. Defense & Security Analysis, 34(2):144-160.

RICHEMOND-BARAK, D. 2018. Underground Warfare. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

ROBERTS, M. 1967.The Military Revolution, 1560–1660, In ID. Essays in Swedish History, London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson.

RODGER, N. A. M. 2011. From the ‘Military Revolution’ to the ‘Fiscal-Naval State. Journal for Maritime Research, 13(2):119-128.

ROGERS, C. J. (ed.), 1995. The Military Revolution. Readings on the Military Transformation of Early Modern Europe. Boulder, Westview Press.

ROSSITER, A. 2018. Drone Usage by Militant Groups: Exploring Variation in Adoption. Defense & Security Analysis, 3(2):113-126.

RUSCHI, F. 2007. Space, Law and Power in Carl Schmitt. Jura Gentium. Rivista di filosofia del diritto internazionale e della politica globale, 4:44-53.

RUSCHI, F.2012. Questioni di spazio: la terra, il mare, il diritto in Carl Schmitt. Torino, Giappichelli.

Sabbagh, D. 2019. Killer drones: how many are there and who do they target? The Guardian, November 18.

SAID, S.; NISSENBAUM, D. 2020. Saudi Air Defenses Thwarted Attack on Aramco. Wall Street Journal, Jan. 29.

SCHMITT, C. 1936-1937. Der Staat als Mechanismus bei Hobbes und Descartes. Archiv für Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie, 30 (S/N), engl. trans. The State as Mechanism in Hobbes and Descartes, In: C. Schmitt. 1996. The Leviathan in the State Theory of Thomas Hobbes. Meaning and Failure of a Political Symbol, Westport, Greenwood.

SCHMITT, C. 1942. Land und Meer. Eine weltgeschichtliche Betrachtung. Leipzig, Reclam; engl. trans. 1997. Land and Sea. Washington DC, Plutarch Press; trad. port. 2008. Terra e Mar. Lisboa, Esfera do Caos.

SCHMITT, C. 1950. Der Nomos der Erde: im Völkerrecht des Jus Publicum Europaeum. Berlin, Duncker & Humblot, engl trans. 2015. The Nomos of the Earth in the International Law of the Jus Publicum Europaeum. Candor, Telos Press, trad. port. 2014. O Nomos da Terra no direito das gentes do jus publicum europaeum. Rio de Janeiro, Contraponto.

SCHMITT, C. 1963. Der Begriff des Politischen. Text von 1932 mit einem Vorwort und drei Corollarien. Berlin, Duncker & Humblot, engl. trans. 1996. The Concept of the Political. Chicago, Chicago University Press.

SCHULTE, P. 2019, Future war: AI, Drones, Terrorism and Counterterror, In: D. M. Jones, P. Schulte, C. Ungerer, M. L. R. Smith (eds), Handbook of Terrorism and Counter Terrorism Post 9/11, Cheltenham, Elgar.

SFERRAZZA PAPA, E. 2016. Nuovi spazi, nuove armi, vecchi nemici Carl Schmitt e la critica filosofica del potere aereo. Jura. Gentium. Rivista di filosofia del diritto internazionale e della politica globale, 13(1):37-62.

SHAH, S. A. 2015. International Law and Drone Strikes in Pakistan. The Legal and Socio-Political Aspects. London, Routledge.

SMITH, D. 2014. Pepper-spray drone offered to South African mines for strike control. The Guardian, June 20.

STUBBLEFIELD, T. 2020. Drone Art. The Everywhere War as Medium. Oakland, California University Press.

TEIXEIRA, A. 2009. Teoria pluriversalista del diritto internazionale. Roma, Aracne, trad. port.2011. Teoria pluriversalista do direito internacional. São Paulo, WMF Martins Fontes.

TEIXEIRA, A. 2010. Global War. The Concept of Modern War Under Attack. Mexican Law Review, 2(2):89-106.

TESCHKE, B. 2016. Carl Schmitt’s Concepts of War: A Categorical Failure, In: J. Meierhenrich, O. Simons (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Carl Schmitt, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

THE ECONOMIST. 2014. Drone pilots: Dilbert at war, June 23.

TKACH, B.; PHILLIPS J. 2020. UN Organizational and Financial Incentives to Employ Private Military and Security Companies in Peacekeeping Operations. International Peacekeeping, 27(1):102-123.

TRALAU, J. 2013. Thomas Hobbes and Carl Schmitt. The Politics of Order and Myth. London, Routledge.

UNIDIR, Increasing Armed UAV Transparency, Oversight and Accountability, 2017, https: //www.unidir.org/ files/ publications/pdfs/increasing-transparency-oversight-and-accountability-of-armed-unmanned-aerial-vehicles-en-692.pdf.

VIRILIO, P. 1984. Guerre et cinéma. Logique de la perception. Paris, Editions de l’Etoile. trad. port. 2005. Guerra e Cinema. São Paulo, Boitempo.

WILLIAMS, B. G. 2010. The CIA’s Covert Predator Drone War in Pakistan, 2004–2010. The History of an Assassination Campaign. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33(10):871-892.

WORRALL, J.; MABON, S.; CLUBB G. 2015. Hezbollah: From Islamic Resistance to Government. Santa Barbara, Praeger.

ZAVRŠNIK, A. 2016, Re-bordering the Peripheral Global North and Global South: Game of Drones, Immobilising Mobile Bodies and Decentring Perspectives on Drones, In: A. Završnik (ed.), Drones and Unmanned Aerial Systems. Legal and Social Implications for Security and Surveillance, Cham, Springer.

ZOLO, D. 1995. Cosmopolis. La prospettiva del governo mondiale, Milano, Feltrinelli. engl. trans. 1997. Cosmopolis. Prospects for World Government, Cambridge, Polity Press.

ZOLO, D. 2000. Chi dice umanità: guerra, diritto e ordine globale, Torino, Einaudi. engl. trans. 2002. Invoking Humanity. War, Law and Global Order. London, Continuum.

ZOLO, D. 2008. L’alito della libertà. Su Bobbio. Milano, Feltrinelli.

ZOLO, D. 2015. La giustizia dei vincitori. Da Norimberga a Baghdad. Roma, Laterza. engl. trans. 2020. Victors’ Justice: From Nuremberg to Baghdad. London, Verso.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.4013/rechtd.2020.121.08



ISSN: 2175-2168 - Melhor visualizado no Mozilla Firefox

Licença Creative Commons
Este trabalho está licenciado sob uma Licença Creative Commons Attribution 3.0

São Leopoldo, RS. Av. Unisinos, 950. Bairro Cristo Rei, CEP: 93.022-000. Atendimento Unisinos +55 (51) 3591 1122

Projeto gráfico: Jully Rodrigues

 
 
 
 
 
 
   

 

SCImago Journal & Country RankCrossref Member Badge Crossref Similarity Check logo